The Phy-Os lab in Nantes with Pierre Layrolle is leading a European research on bone regeneration relying on the use of stem cells. The framework is the Maxibone project funded by the European Commission (6 M€) which is the follow up of a previous European project, “Reborne”, that involved 24 partners from 8 European countries during a 5 year period. This time, the clinical trials show a wider dimension and should lead to a marketed product in 3 years. The product under trials uses a revolutionary process consisting in combining stem cells to a biomaterial to repair jawbones. The study will enroll 150 patients from several European countries. It is based on the comparison in patients between the reference technique which is an autologous bone graft and the innovative technique developed in the Maxibone project.